Viticulture

The Denomination

of Gavi docg

Gavi docg is traditionally produced from 100% Cortese grapes, cultivated within a precise geographical area, a predominantly hilly area, in the southern part of the province of Alessandria.

Forms of cultivation,

Planting Patterns and Pruning Systems

Guyot training system, characteristic of quality viticulture, with average planting distances ranging from 2.40 to 2.60 metres between rows and 0.90 to 1.20 metres between vines, with average investments of vines per hectare from 3,300 to 5.000 and such as to pursue the best and rational disposition of the vines on the surface, both to facilitate the execution of the cultivation operations, as well as to allow the rational management of the foliage, obtaining an adequate, well-exposed leaf surface and able to contain the wine production yields within the limits set by the regulations (66.50 hl/ha for the basic type and 45,50 hl/ha for the Riserva type).

Climate

The microclimate of the production area, characterised by abundant rainfall from October to April (619 mm), hot and dry summers (minimum rainfall in July of 38 mm) tempered by the influence of winds coming from the sea and the mild temperature and excellent sunshine in September, allows the grapes to fully ripen, contributing significantly to the specific organoleptic properties of Gavi docg. The high temperature range between night and day that characterises the final grape ripening favours the exaltation of the scents that characterise the typical bouquet of Gavi docg.

Protection & Sustainability

The technical activity of the Consortium for the Protection of Gavi involves various projects, both in the vineyard and in the cellar: from clonal selection to thematic maps of the area (sunset, slope, altimetry and exposure), from the regulation of sprayers to the study of native yeasts. The projects have a very specific purpose: to improve vineyard management techniques, whilst respecting environmental sustainability and biodiversity, in addition to updating winemaking practices in the cellar whilst respecting tradition. 

Online protection: this activity involves the monitoring of Italian and international websites, aimed at protecting the image of Gavi docg in Italy and abroad.

The Consortium also carries out annual surveillance activities on the entire D.O. Gavi by means of checks carried out by supervisory agents during the marketing stage to ensure that the protected production meets the requirements set out in the product specification. A series of bottles of Gavi docg on sale both in the mass retailing (supermarkets and Hard Discount) and hospitality & retail (wine shops) sectors all over Italy: the wines taken are subjected to chemical-physical analysis and administrative checks on the compliance of the labels with what is written on the state label. In the event of irregularities, a report is made to the ICQRF – Central Inspectorate for the protection of quality and fraud repression of agri-food products.

PROJECT

Grapevine Leafhopper 2019

Since 2012, the Consortium for the Protection of Gavi has been the coordinator of the Golden Flavescence Project, which involves producers (wine growers and hobbyists, organic and traditionally managed vineyards), local institutions, public administration organisations, the Province of Alessandria and the Piedmont Region.
The number of vineyards involved increased progressively, with a total of 1,200 traps positioned to monitor grapevine leafhopper vector insects (Scafoideus titanus) and 7,800 plants monitored for the regional survey: the Consortium Tutela del Gavi directly managed 840 traps and 5,250 plants, distributed in 35 vineyards.
The project involves monitoring the vineyards in June to identify the presence of the juvenile forms of the vector insect and the subsequent placement of chromatographic traps until the end of October, to be replaced on a fortnightly basis to monitor the presence of adult insects.
Reading the juvenile forms is essential to know the developmental stage of the vector insect and to set up the defence. Following the reading of the chromatographic traps by the technicians, the most suitable moments for the compulsory treatment with conventional insecticides are established each time, informing all the companies of the territory on the times and methods of intervention, paying attention also to honey sector operators.

Some uncultivated lands are also checked as possible sources of inoculum of the disease.
In the middle of August, the Consortium organises the "Flavescenza day" dedicated to wine producers: a long visit to a Gavi vineyard, to recognise plants affected by the grapevine leafhopper and/or esca, in order to compare the symptoms and the various manifestations of the two diseases.
Winegrowers are taught how to distinguish between the various symptoms and stages of the two diseases and, above all, how to identify and manage diseased plants and to implement the necessary good viticultural practice techniques: the elimination of diseased plants and the use of chromatographic traps to detect insects
The Consortium raises awareness in the area and provides information, organising a public debate in April to present the progress of the project to the territory; in addition, during the viticultural season, periodic technical bulletins are issued and posters are put up in public places, providing information on the strategies, times and methods of control.

PROJECT

Let's Not Catch Esca 2019

The subject is esca disease : not a single disease, but a series of pathogens that affect the vine plant at different times and in different ways. They are, in fact, better defined in the plural as wood diseases and pose a serious threat as they affect increasingly young vines. The Consortium for the Protection of Gavi organised a focus that brought together the leading national and international experts in this disease. The conference proceedings are available for free download.

PROJECT

Frozenvines 2017/2018

For three consecutive mornings on 19, 20 and 21 April 2017, exceptional weather conditions occurred. In some areas of Piedmont, minimum temperatures reached as low as -4°C, whilst the vegetative cycle of the vines was approximately 10-15 days earlier than normal, with shoots as long as 15-20 centimetres. It was a complex and varied event with major destructive consequences. Damage was not only localised on the valley floors, but also along the hillsides and up to high altitudes, affecting various exposures, young vines and old vines. The Consortium monitored sample vineyards over the course of two harvest years in order to analyse the incidence of the phenomenon on the vines and on production.

PROJECT

If The Drop Makes A Difference 2017

The project of functional regulation of spray driers has been developed by Consortium Tutela del Gavi in collaboration with Cadir Lab of Quargnento (AL). It stems from the need to identify a standard and general guidelines to carry out a targeted action of treatments in the vineyard in respect of the environment and beekeeping. This is “a practical sustainability project” to show winemakers what is happening in the vineyard by comparing single-row and alternate-row treatments, the use of the overhead diffuser and the influence of topping in distribution.
In addition, thanks to the participation of the manufacturers, it is possible to see, in action, the company’s machine Vma – model SV5 and the trailed machine/series Tav (Dragone) that is also used with anti-drift nozzles (Abbà). In May, the first tests in the vineyard begin, through the positioning of the water-sensitive maps at various heights in the leaf wall of the treated row, but also in those more distant as on the ground, to verify the drift of the product.
The activity continues in the vineyard during June and July with the Open Day in the field between the rows to then collect and process all the data.

PROJECT

Indigenous Yeasts 2015

Since the 2015 harvest, the Consortium has started the Project of selecting indigenous yeasts, in collaboration with the Italiana Biotecnologie – Enartis laboratory, to increase the viticultural value of Gavi Docg.
The project studied the yeasts present on the grapes, in organic and conventional vineyards, to select those able to best enhance the characteristics of Cortese. In 2015, bunches were sampled in each project vineyard (9 total vineyards: 3 conventional vineyards and 6 organic vineyards) and delivered to the Enartis Laboratory, which is responsible for the isolation and preservation of yeast strains from fermenting musts, the molecular and biological characterisation of the isolated strains, oenological tests (fermentative power, production of volatile acidity, SO2 and glycerol) and comparison with commercial dry yeasts.

For the 2016 vintage, two different strains of indigenous yeasts, labelled CTdG12 and CTdG07 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae from samples taken last year and prepared with the contribution of Enartis, were introduced for the first time and tested by some wineries of the Gavi Appellation. As soon as the wines are available, we will proceed with a technical test and tasting to verify the compliance of these yeasts.

Historical Vintages

2020

Short winter, cool and warm summer and summery september.

Overall rating: 4,5 stars

2019

Short winter, warm summer and a generous september.

Overall rating: 4,5 stars

2018

A bit of winter, an incomplete summer but a great september and an incredible harvest.

Overall rating: 4,5 stars

2017

Definitely an unusual year, marked by a mild and dry winter, late frost during spring, while a prolonged  drought and  high temperatures during the whole growing season induced water stress to the vineyards.

Overall rating: 4 stars

2016

Mild and dry winter, never too hot except for the summer end, only one snowfall in march, the end of april saw the minimum temperature close to zero degrees, timely rain on september 15th and 16th, good productivity (superior to 2015) and good alcoholic content.

Overall rating: 5 stars

2015

A year to remember, peculiar but unforgettable.

Overall rating: 5 stars